Professor Albert Stuart Reece and Clinical Research

As well as working with patients clinically Dr Reece is also a Professor of Medicine at the University of Western Australia and the Edith Cowan University which are both near Perth in Western Australia.


For many years Dr Reece has published clinical and epidemiological research and reviews of basic science relevant to drug use and exploring the health implications of the known harms and risks of drug use and drug dependency.  This body of work is ethically approved by various Human Research Ethics Research Committees around the country.

This extensive research agenda continues to grow as new papers are being added to the list all the time.  The current list is noted below which will be periodically updated.

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The work has several major themes:

  • Aggregated (de-identified and confidential) clinical reviews of trends comparing drug-dependent patients with those who are not drug dependent;

  • The relationship of many drugs of dependence to accelerate cardiovascular ageing and accelerated ageing of the whole human body;

  • Risks associated with cannabis use, especially genotoxicity – expressed clinically in birth defects and cancers – and neurotoxicity – expressed clinically in autism and mental illness.


At present Dr Reece is using advanced statistical techniques in R to conduct space-time analyses and look at the formal statistical pathways of causal inference – showing that relationships are not just associations but actually causal – in various large national USA datasets using the advanced software data analysis program called “R” which is freely available online.

Click on a link below to read more:

Professional Summary

Date of Graduation: 1981

Medical School: Sydney University

Teaching Hospital: Concord Hospital

Degree Gained: MBBS

Place in Final Medicine/Surgery Exam: Third

Part 1 FRACS. Passed: October 1983 at first attempt

Pass at Part 1 FRACS.: 80-84%

FRCS. (Ed.) Passed: January 1990 at first attempt

FRCS. (Glas.) Passed: February 1990 at first attempt

MD. (UNSW.) Passed: 1993

FRACGP. Passed: 1994

Associate Professor of Medicine at the University of Western Australia since 2010. 


Appointed as Professor of Medicine at the University of Western Australia since 2019.

Full Adjunct Professor of Medicine at Edith Cowan University in Perth from May 2018.



  1. Adams P.C., Reece A.S., Powell L.W., Halliday J. W. (1989) Hepatic Iron in the Control of Iron Absorption in the Rat Liver Transplantation Model.  Transplantation 48 (1) 19-21.

  2. Lord R.S.A., Graham A.R., Shanahan M.X., Chang V., Reece A.S., Farnsworth A.E., Esmore D.S., Pratt P., (1986) “Rationale for Simultaneous Carotid Endarterectomy and Aorta-coronary Bypass” Ann. Vasc. Surg. 1(2) 201-7.

  3. Reece A.S., Lynch S.V., Lord R.S.A., Yeates M.G., Eberl S., (1987) “Rat Orthotopic Liver Transplantation: Technique and Initial Studies”. Abstract in A.N.Z. J. Surg. 57 (4) 265.

  4. Adams P.C., Reece A.S., Powell L.W., Halliday J.W. (1988) “Hepatic Iron Stores in the Control of Iron Absorption in the Rat Liver Transplantation Model”. Abstract in the Proceedings of the Haematology Society of Australasia. A.N.Z. J. Med. 18 (3) 435.

  5. Adams P.C., Reece A.S., Powell A.S., Halliday J.W., (1989) Does the Hepatocyte Regulate Iron Absorption?” Abstract in the Proceedings of the Gastroenterological Society of Australia, Perth, April 1989.

  6. Tan K.C., Malcolm G.P., Reece A.S., Howard E.R. (1991) “The Surgical Anatomy of Donor Right Trisegmentectomy Before Orthotopic Liver Transplantation in Children”. Brit. J. Surg. 78 (7) 805-808.

  7. Reece A.S.  “Breast Cancer and COCP.”  Aust Fam Physician. 2000 May;29(5):406-7. 

  8. Reece A.S.  “Alcohol Licensing Data.”  Med J Aust. 1998 Nov 2;169(9):503-4. 

  9. Reece A.S.  “Hepatitis C--a Current Perspective.”  Aust Fam Physician. 1995       Aug;24(8):1577-8.

  10. Heaton ND, Reece AS, Tan KC.  “Graft-Versus-Host Disease Following     Liver Transplantation.”  J R Soc Med. 1992 Jun;85(6):313-4. 

  11. Reece S.   “Rapid Opioid Detoxification in Australia.”  Acad Emerg Med.   2002 Sep; 9(9):960-2.  PubMed ID 12208687.  DOI: 10.1197/aemj.9.9.960

  12. Reece A.S.  “Naltrexone Implants Set to Supercede HM”  Letter to British Medical Journal January 2005 330 (7483): 147.  (“HM” stands for “Harm minimization.”).  Published 23/09/2004.  PMID: 15649939. doi:  

  13. G.K. Hulse, D.E. Arnold-Reed and H. Ngo, S Reece., “Naltrexone Implants in the Treatment of Heroin Addiction.”  Ed: McKenna C.R. (2007)  In: Trends in Substance Abuse Research, Nova Publications, New York.  Chapter 3, pp71-88. ISBN: 1-60021-368-5.

  14. Reece A.S.  “Accelerated Hair Graying in Opiate Addicts” , Archives of Dermatology, 2007; 143 (1): 116-118.  PMID: 17224556.  DOI: 10.1001/archderm.143.1.116 .

  15. Reece A.S.  “Dentition of Addiction in Queensland:  Poor Dental Status and Major Contributing Drugs.”  Aust. Dent. J.  2007. 52(2): 144-149.  PMID: 17687962.  DOI: 10.1111/j.1834-7819.2007.tb00480.x

  16. Reece A.S.  “Lifetime prevalence of cervical neoplasia in an addiction clinic”  Australian and New Zealand Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology 2007; 47: 419-423.  PMID: 17877603.  DOI: 10.1111/j.1479-828X.2007.00769.x 

  17. Reece A.S., Davidson P.  “Deficit of circulating stem - progenitor cells in opiate addiction maintenance:  pilot study.”  Subst Abuse Treat Preven. Policy 2007; 2 (1): 19-25.  PMID: 1765060. 

  18. Reece A.S. “Evidence of Accelerated Ageing in Clinical Drug Addiction from Immune, Hepatic and Metabolic Biomarkers.”  Immunity and Ageing 2007; 4 (1): 6-12.  PMID: 17892544. 

  19. Reece A.S.  “When Harm minimization is Not Harm Minimization – Australia as a Case Study”  Journal of Global Drug Policy 1(4), December 2007.

  20. Reece A.S.  “Psychosocial and treatment correlates of opiate free success in a clinical  review of a naltrexone implant program.”  Subs Abuse Treatment Prevention Policy and Practice 2007; 2: 35-47.  PMID: 18063213. DOI:10.1186/1747-597X-2-35. 

  21. Reece A.S.  “Clinical Implications Of Addiction Related Immunosuppression.”  J. Infection.  2008; 56(6) 437-445.  PMID: 18440646. DOI:

  22. Reece A.S.   “Respiratory Effects of Cannabis.”  Drug Watch International Newsletter 22/12/2007. 12(2): 1.

  23. Reece A.S. “Chronology And Patterns Of Psychiatric Morbidity In Substance Dependent And Medical Patients”  Australasian Psychiatry 2009; 17 (2) 170-171.  April.  doi:  10.1177/103985620901700203.

  24. Reece A.S.  “Response to Aldington: Cannabis and Lung Cancer.”  Letter in European Respiratory Journal, 2008; 32 (1): 238-239.  July.  PMID: 18591344. doi: 10.1183/09031936.00024408.

  25. Reece A.S.  “Experience of road and other trauma by the substance dependent patient: A survey report.”  Subs. Abuse Prevention, Treatment and Policy, Accepted 2008; 3: 10-22.  PMID: 18454868. 

  26. Reece A.S.  “Cannabis as a Cause of Giant Cystic Lung Disease”  Q Journal of Medicine, 2008; 101(6): 503.  PMID: 18375474.

  27. Reece A.S.  "Chronic viral hepatitis is a significant contributor to the immunosenescent phenotype of parenteral drug addiction"  Addiction Biology 2009; 14 (2): 214-226.  PMID: 18811680. DOI: 10.1111/j.1369-1600.2008.00123.x;jsessionid=CD43882532F5BB2FEC2D1E632CF667E9.f02t04 

  28. Reece A.S.  “An Intriguing Association Between Dental and Mental Pathology in Addicted and Control Subjects: A Cross-sectional survey.”  Brit. Dental J., part of the Nature Group.  2008; 205(11): E22-E30.  PMID: 18953330.  ePublished  24th October 2008. DOI: 10.1038/sj.bdj.2008.932

  29. Reece A.S. "Summary of: An Intriguing Association Between Dental and Mental Pathology in Addicted and Control Subjects: A Cross-sectional survey" Brit. Dental J. 2008; 205(11): 598-599.   doi:10.1038/sj.bdj.2008.1035.  ePublished  13th December 2008. 

  30. Reece A.S.  “Appetitive and Addictive Factors Pertinent to Neuroscience Studies of Sexuality”  Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA.  2008;  105 (46): E86.  PMID 19004795.  DOI: 10.1073/pnas.0807879105   

  31. Reece A.S. “Chronic Ulcers due to Injection of Substances: Healing aided by Naltrexone.”  Archives of Dermatology, 2009 145(4): 375-377.  PMID: 19380658.  doi:10.1001/archdermatol.2009.4

  32. Reece A.S.  “Haemodynamic Changes in Acute Opiate Withdrawal” Q Journal of Medicine, 2009; 102: 357.  PMID: 19028746.

  33. Reece A.S. “Improved Parameters of Metabolic Glycaemic and Immune Function and Arterial Stiffness with Naltrexone Implant Therapy.”  British Medical Journal Case Reports, 2009; 2009:bcr0820080799.  Published online 14/04/2009, doi: 10.1136/bcr.08.2008.0799.  PMID: 21687046.

  34. Reece A.S.  “Deterioration of Indices of Aortic Augmentation and Vascular Age Predate Major Cardiac Events and Interact with Opiate Dependence”  International Journal of Cardiology  Published Online 26/03/2009, DOI: 10.1016/j.ijcard.2009.03.015  PMID: 19327850.   149 (1): e8-e11.

  35. Reece A.S.  “Cutting the Gordian Knot of Drug Addiction Confusion: Strategy of Seduction vs. Seduction of Strategy”  J Global Drug Policy.  2009; 2(4)    . Also    20pp.

  36. Reece A.S.  “Severe Multisystem Dysfunction in a case of high level exposure to smoked cannabis”  Br. Medical Journal - Case Reports.  Published online 2nd September 2009; 2009. pii: bcr08.2008.0798  doi: 10.1136/bcr.08.2008.0798  PMID: 21887157.

  37. Reece A.S. "Dental Health in Addiction"  Australian Dental Journal, 2009; 54(2): 185-186.  21st May 2009.  doi: 10.1111/j.1834-7819.2009.01116_7.x  PMID: 19473171.;jsessionid=432C2E23859428AC41BF2FB28198317D.f01t03

  38. Reece A.S.  "Comparative Treatment and Mortality Correlates and Adverse Event Profile of Implant Naltrexone and Sublingual Buprenorphine."  Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment 2009; 37(3): 256-265.  PMID: 19394789. DOI: 10.1016/j.jsat.2009.03.008

  39. Reece A.S.  “Chronic Toxicology of Cannabis”  Clinical Toxicology, 2009; 47(6): 517-524.  PMID: 19586351.  DOI:10.1080/15563650903074507  

  40. Reece A.S.  Letter: Response to Oviedo-Joekes.  “Diacetylmorphine versus methadone for opioid addiction”  New England Journal of Medicine. 2009; 361(22): 2194-5.  PMID: 19950413.  DOI: 10.1056/NEJMc0908720

  41. Reece A.S.  “Favourable Mortality Profile of Naltrexone Implants for Opiate Addiction – A Clinical Audit”  Journal of Addictive Diseases 2010; 29(1): 30-50.  PMID: 20390697.    DOI:  10.1080/10550880903435988 

  42. Reece A.S.  “Deterioration of Indices of Aortic Augmentation and Vascular Age Predate Cardiac Events and Interact with Opiate Dependence”  Int. J. Cardiol.  Accepted 26/05/2010, 149 (1): e8-e11.  PMID: 19327850. doi.: 10.1016/j.ijcard.2009.03.015.

  43. Reece A.S. “Clinical Safety of 1500mg Oral Naltrexone Overdose” British Medical Journal - Case Reports, 2010 Sep 7;2010. pii: bcr0420102871. PMID: 22778191.  DOI:  10.1136/bcr.04.2010.2871

  44. Reece A.S. “Chronic Immune Stimulation as a Contributing Cause of Chronic Disease in Opiate Addiction Including Multi-System Ageing”  Medical Hypotheses, 2010, 75 (6), 613-619.  PMID: 20800362. DOI: 10.1016/j.mehy.2010.07.047

  45. Reece A.S. “Hypothalamic Opioid – Melanocortin Appetitive Balance and Addictive Craving”.  Medical Hypotheses, 2011; 76 (1) 132-137.  PMID: 20923200.  DOI: 10.1016/j.mehy.2010.09.002

  46. Reece A.S.  “Resolving the Opiate Policy Paradox: Depot Naltrexone May Provide a Bridge Across High Risk Early Opiate Sobriety.”  British Medical Journal Letter, 2010; 341:c3172.  Published 29/08/2010,  doi:   

  47. Reece A.S.  “Giant Cystic Lung Disease With Mediastinal Compression In A Short Term Heavy Cannabis Smoker”  British Medical Journal – Case Reports.  Accepted 4/10/2010.   Published 2/02/2011.   PMID: 22714596. doi: 10.1136/bcr.04.2010.2934 

  48. Reece A.S., Tashkin D.  “Discussion on Poiseuille’s Law in Cannabis Related Giant Cystic Lung Disease.”  British Medical Journal – Case Reports.  Accepted 18/10/2010.   bcr.04.2010.2934.R2.  file:///D:/1ASReece/Research/2010%20Res/O'Connell%20K%20CR/re%20BMJ%20Case%20Reports%20-%20Decision%20on%20Manuscript%20ID%20bcr.04.2010.2934.R1%20(Finalization%20of%20Dr%20Reece's%20report)%20-%20Acceptance.htm 

  49. Reece A.S.  “Differing Age Related Trajectories of Dysfunction in Several Organ Systems in Opiate Dependence”  Aging Clin. Experimental Research 2012; 24 (1): 85-96.  PMID: 21339699.  doi: 10.3275/7518 ePub 21/02/2012.

  50. Reece A.S. “Relative and Age Dependent Stimulation of Soluble and Cellular Immunity in Opiate Dependence”  Journal of Addiction  Medicine  Accepted 5/07/2011. 6 (1) 10-17.  PMID: 21918466. doi: 10.1097/ADM.0b013e31822c3bf4 

  51. Christian G., Pike G., Santamaria J., Reece S., DuPont R., Mangham C.  “Overdose Deaths and Vancouver’s Supervised Injection Facility.”  Lancet (2012)  January 14; 379 (9811): 117.  PMID: 22243818.  doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(12)60054-3

  52. Baxter J., Baker H.M., Reece S.  “The Use of Cannabis for Medical Purposes.”  J Global Drug Policy (2013) 7 (1) Spring 2013. 

  53. Reece A.S. “Manifold Implications of Forgotten Hyperglycaemia in Clinical Opiate Dependence”  Accepted Drug and Chemical Toxicology (2013) 36 (1) 55-66.  PMID: 22313373.  doi: 10.3109/01480545.2011.649286   ePub 8/02/2012.

  54. Reece A.S.,  “High Sensitivity CRP in Opiate Addiction: Relative and Age-Dependent Elevations” Cardiovascular Toxicology.  (2012) 12  (2) 149-157.  PMID: 22297435.  doi: 10.1007/s12012-012-9154-2.

  55. Reece A.S.  “What’s Wrong with Medicare”  Commentary on Professional Services Review in Australia.  Accepted Medical Journal of Australia, Published 20th February 2012.  196 (3): 170.  PMID: 22451969. doi: 10.5694/mja12.10099   

  56. Reece A.S. “Opiate-Related Testicular Stem Cell Niche Toxicopathology”  Accepted International J. High Risk Behaviours and Addiction, Accepted 7th June 2012.  1(2) 86-87.  doi: 10.5812/ijhrba.6522 

  57. Reece A.S. “Restoring the Double Disconnect:  Towards a Conceptual Reinstatement of Opiate Addiction as a High Risk Behaviour”.  Int. J. High Risk Behaviours and Addictions.  Accepted 27/06/2012.   doi: 10.5812/ijhrba.6936  1(2) 47-49. ePub date 25th July 2012.  

  58. Kelty E., Nicholls P.K., O’Neil G., Harrison Z., Chan C.T. Symons P., Reece A.S., Hulse G. “The Occurrence of Spontaneous Lymphomas but not adenomas or sarcomas in rats treated with sustained release naltrexone”  Clin. Exp. Pharmacology  2012.  Published 21/04/2012.  2: 105  doi: 10.4172/2161-1459.1000105

  59. Reece A.S.  Commented Summary on Khademi H. et. al. In BMJ 2012; 314:e2502 doi: 10.1136/bmj.e2502 17/04/2012 “Opium use and mortality in Golestan cohort study.”  Archives of Iranian Medicine (2012); 15 (9): 588-590. Published 25/09/2012.

  60. Reece A.S., Hulse G.K.  “Elevation of Central Arterial Stiffness and Vascular Ageing in Opiate Withdrawal: Cross-sectional and Longitudinal Studies”  Cardiovascular Toxicology (2013) 13 (1); 55-67. PMID: 22991174.   doi: 10.1007/s12012-012-9186-7.  

  61. Baxter J., Baker H.M., Reece A.S. "The Use of Cannabis for Medical Purposes."  J Global Drug Policy.  Published 31/12/2013.

  62. Reece A.S.  “Epidemiologic and molecular pathophysiology of chronic opioid dependence and the place of naltrexone extended-release formulations in its clinical management”  Substance Abuse: Research and Treatment.  (2012) 6: 115-133. PMID: 23055738.  doi: 10.4137/SART.S9031. Epub 2012 Sep 27.  

  63. Reece A.S. “Absolute and Age Dependent Elevations of Serum Calcium and Phosphate and their Products in Clinical Opiate Dependence”  J Subs. Use,  (2014) 19 (1-2): 125-133.  doi: 10.3109/14659891.2012.754507. ISSN: 1465-9891

  64. Reece A.S. “Elevated IGF1 in Clinical Opiate Dependence”  Neuroendocrine Letters, (2013); 34 (1):18-26.   PMID: 23524620.     ISSN: 0172-780X   

  65. Reece A.S., Hulse G.K.  “Impact of Opioid Pharmacotherapy on Arterial stiffness and Vascular Ageing: Cross-sectional and Longitudinal Studies”.   Cardiovascular Toxicology (2013); 13 (3): 254-266. PMID 23456431.  doi: 10.1007/s12012-013-9204-4  

  66. Reece A.S., Hulse G.K.  “Reduction in Arterial Stiffness and Vascular Age by Naltrexone-Induced Interruption of Opiate Agonism”  BMJ Open (2013) 3(3) pii: e002610.  PMID 23524044    doi: 10.1136/bmjopen-2013-002610

  67. Reece A.S, Hulse G.K.  “Lifetime Opiate Exposure as an Independent and Interactive Cardiovascular Risk Factor in Males: A Cross-Sectional Clinical Study”  Vascular Health Risk Management, (2013); 9: 551-561.  .  PMID:  24124373   doi: 10.2147/VHRM.S48030.   Epub 2013 Oct 2.

  68. Reece A.S, Hulse G.K.  “Opiate Exposure Increases Arterial Stiffness, Advances Vascular Age and is an Independent Cardiovascular Risk Factor in Females: A Cross-Sectional Clinical Study” World J. Cardiovascular Diseases (2013); ePub 25/07/2013. Vol3: pp361-370. .   DOI: 10.4236/wjcd.2013.35056;

  69. Reece A.S, Hulse G.K.  “Opiate Dependence as an Independent and Interactive Risk Factor for Arterial Stiffness and Cardiovascular Ageing - A Longitudinal Study in Females.” J. Clinical Medical Research  (2013); 5(5): 356-367.  PMID: 23976908.    doi: 10.4021/jocmr1496w. Epub 2013 Aug 5.    

  70. Reece A.S, Hulse G.K.  "Duration of Opiate Exposure as a Determinant of Arterial Stiffness and Vascular Age in Male Opiate Dependence: A Longitudinal Study" Journal of Clinical Pharmacy and Therapeutics. (2014); 39 (2): 158-167. PMID: 24329809.  doi: 10.1111/jcpt.12121. Epub 2013 Dec 16;jsessionid=94518B6E81A1EDFAA443AB2FD162D6F1.f01t04  

  71. Reece A.S., Hulse G.K., “Impact of Lifetime Opioid Exposure on Arterial Stiffness and Vascular Age: Cross-sectional and Longitudinal Studies in Men and Women.”  BMJ Open.  Accepted 13/05/2014.  ePub 3/06/2014. 2014;4:e004521.  PMID: 24889849   doi:10.1136/bmjopen-2013-004521

  72. Reece A.S., Hulse G.K. “Hypothalamic Pathophysiology in the Neuroimmune, Dysmetabolic and Longevity Complications of Chronic Opiate Dependency”.  J. Forensic Toxicology and Pharmacology, Accepted 28/06/2014.  doi:10.4172/2325-9841.1000126   Published 07/07/2014.

  73. Hulse G., Kelty E., Hood D.H., Norman A., Basso M.,  Reece A.S.  “Novel indications for benzodiazepine antagonist flumazenil in GABA mediated pathological conditions of the central nervous system.”  Current Pharmaceutical Design, June 2015.  21(23): .3325-3342. PMID: 26088116. DOI : 10.2174/1381612821666150619092720

  74. Reece A.S., Hulse G.K.  "Chromothripsis and Epigenomics Complete Causality Criteria for Cannabis- and Addiction- Connected Carcinogenicity, Congenital Toxicity and Heritable Genotoxicity."    Mutation Research (2016); 789: 15-25. PMID: 27208973. DOI:10.1016/j.mrfmmm.2016.05.002

  75. Reece A.S., Norman A., Hulse G.K. "Serum Ionic Dysequilibria in Clinical Opioid Dependence."  Human Experimental Toxicology. 2017: 36 (8) 776-784.  Accepted 19th August 2016. Published 01/01/2017.  PMID: 28703074. doi: 10.1177/0960327116666649.

  76. Reece A.S., Norman A., Hulse G.K.  "Dramatic Acceleration of Reproductive Aging, Contraction of Biochemical Fecundity and Healthspan-Lifespan Implications of Opioid-Induced Endocrinopathy: FSH/LH Ratio and Other Interrelationships"  Accepted Reproductive Toxicology, 10th September 2016.  2016;  66: 20-30.  Published 20th September 2016.  PubMed ID: 27663472.  DOI: 10.1016/j.reprotox.2016.09.006 

  77. Reece A.S., Norman A., Hulse G.K.  "Elevation of the ACTH/Cortisol Ratio in Female Opioid Dependent Patients: A Biomarker of Aging and Correlate of Metabolic and Immune Activation"  Accepted Neuroendocrine Letters 2nd October 2016. Vol 37 (4): 325-336.  Published 18/09/2016.   PubMed ID: 27857051. ;

  78. Reece A.S., Norman A., Hulse G.K.  "Cannabis Exposure as an Interactive Cardiovascular Risk Factor and Accelerant of Organismal Ageing – A Longitudinal Study"  6(11):e011891.  Accepted BMJ Open 20th October 2016.  PubMed ID:  27821595.   DOI:   Published BMJ Open 01/11/2016.

  79. Reece A.S., Hulse G.K.  Letter in Response to: "Medicinal Cannabis in Australia: The Missing Links" Martin J.H. and Bonomo Y.A., Medical Journal of Australia 205 (9): 425. Published 07.11.2016.  Accepted 28.06.2016. PubMed ID : 27809740  DOI: 10.5694/mja16.00709.   Published 7th November 2016.

  80. Reece A.S., Norman A., Hulse G.K.  "Acceleration of Cardiovascular - Biological Age by Amphetamine Exposure is a Power Function of Chronological Age."  (2017) 9 (1): 30-38.  Accepted by Heart Asia 8th November 2016.  2017, 9 (1): 30-38.  PubMed ID: 28243315. doi:

  81. A.S. Reece.  "Out of the Shadows, Into the Limelight – Sobering Salience of Meta-Analysis of Chronic Periodontitis in Drug Addiction"  Editorial for Addiction Journal.  Accepted 07.02.2017.  2017, 112 (5): 780-781.  PubMed ID: 28378333.   DOI: 10.1111/add.13791;jsessionid=27D50571FD93C32D1C983677FF8C2BAB.f03t01

  82. AS. Reece  "Dying for Love: Perimenopausal Degeneration of Vaginal Microbiome Drives the Chronic Inflammation-Malignant Transformation of Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia to Prostatic Adenocarcinoma"  Accepted by  Medical Hypothesis 13th February 2017. 2017; 101: 44-47.  PubMed ID: 28351489.  DOI: 10.1016/j.mehy.2017.02.006.

  83. Gao X., Wang Y., Lang M.L., Yuan L., Reece A.S., Wang W.  "Contribution of Genetic Polymorphisms and Haplotypes in DRD2, BDNF and Opioid Receptors to Heroin Dependence and Endophenotypes among the Han Chinese."  OMICS: A Journal of Integrative Biology, 2017; 21(7): 404-412.  Accepted 26.05.2017.  PMID: 28692418. 

  84. A.S. Reece, G.K. Hulse.   "What are the Characteristics of Vitamin D Metabolism in Opioid Dependence?  An Exploratory Longitudinal Study in Australian Primary Care"  Accepted in BMJ Open 27th September 2017.  URL:   BMJ Open 2018 January 13, 8(1): e016806.  PMID: 29331964. .

  85. Reece A.S., Wang W., Hulse G.K.  "Pathways from Epigenomics and Glycobiology towards Novel Biomarkers of Addiction and its Radical Cure".  Medical Hypotheses.  Published 17th April 2018.  Vol 116: 10-21.  .

  86. Reece A.S.  “Known Cannabis Teratogenicity Should be Carefully Considered”  BMJ Rapid Response.  Accepted 06/08/2018.  URL: Chosen as Editors Choice for BMJ 23/10/2018.

  87. Rapid Response to Cardenas A, Villaba A., de Juan Romero C., Pico E., Kyrousi C., Tzika A.C., Tessier-Lavigne M., Ma L., Drukker M., Borrell V.  (2018)  “Evolution of cortical neurogenesis in amniotes is controlled by robo signaling levels.”  Cell 174(3): 590-606.  Published on Cell website. 

  88. Alblooshi H., Al Safar H., Fisher H.F., Cordell H.J., El Khasef A., Al Ghaferi H., Shawky M., Reece S., Hulse G.K., Tay G.K.. A case-control genome wide association study of Substance Use Disorder (SUD) identifies novel variants on chromosome 7p14.1 in patients from the United Arab Emirates (UAE).   American Journal of Medical Genetics Part B: Neuropsychiatric Genetics.  Accepted 21st October 2018.

  89. Reece A.S., Hulse G.K. “Explaining Contemporary Patterns of Cannabis Teratology”.  Accepted in Clinical Pediatrics 18th January 2019.   doi:  10.4172/2572-0775.1000146

  90. Reece A.S. “Cannabis Problematics Include but are not Limited to Pain Management”  JAMA.  Published online 3rd February 2019. .  doi: doi:10.1001/jama.2019.0077 .

  91. Reece A.S., Hulse G.K.  “Gastroschisis and Autism—Dual Canaries in the Californian Coalmine”  Published online February 6th  2019.  doi:  10.1001/jamasurg.2018.4694    PMID: 30725103 JAMA Surgery

  92. Reece A.S., Hulse G.K. “Effect of Cannabis Legalization on US Autism Incidence and Medium Term Projections.” Clinical Pediatrics: Open Access.  Accepted 27th April 2019.  4(2): 1-17.  ePublished 3rd May 2019. DOI: 10.24105/2572-0775.4.154  .

  93. Reece A.S. Rapid Response to “When the Law Fails Patients.” by Hurley R. in British Medical Journal. “Billionaires v Babies.”  Published 10th May 2019.  2019; 365:1980   doi: 

  94. Reece A.S.  Rapid Response to “Why Medical Cannabis is still out of Patient’s Reach.” By Nutt D.  BMJ 2019; 365:1903.  doi:  Published 10th May 2019.

  95. Reece A.S., Hulse G.K. “Epidemiological Associations of Various Substances and Multiple Cannabinoids with Autism in USA”.  Accepted 22nd May 2019.  Clinical Pediatrics: Open Access.  Published 31st May 2019. doi: 10.24105/2572-0775.4.155

  96. Reece A.S., Hulse G.K.  “Impacts of Cannabinoid Epigenetics on Human Development: Reflections on Murphy et. al. “Cannabinoid Exposure and Altered DNA Methylation in Rat and Human Sperm” Epigenetics 2018; 13: 1208-1221.”  Accepted Epigenetics 14th June 2019. doi: .

  97. Reece A.S.    Should We Legalize Cannabis:  “Cannabis Debates and Cannabis Debacles: Serious Downstream Implications of Cannabis Neurotoxicity and Genotoxicity”  British Medical Journal, Rapid Responses,  Published 7th July 2019

  98. Reece A.S. Hulse G.K.  “Cannabis Teratology Explains Current Patterns of Coloradan Congenital Defects: The Contribution of Increased Cannabinoid Exposure to Rising Teratological Trends.”  Clinical Pediatrics.  Published online 9th July 2019.

  99. Reece A.S., Hulse G.K.,  “Impacts of Cannabinoid Epigenetics on Human Development: Reflections on Murphy et. al. “Cannabinoid Exposure and Altered DNA Methylation in Rat and Human Sperm” Epigenetics 2018; 13: 1208-1221.  13th July 2019.

  100. Reece A.S. “Cannabis Threatens Oocytes, a Non-Renewable National Genomic Resource – and Implications of Prostacyclin Vasodilation and Anti-thrombogenesis”  British Medical Journal Rapid Response.  Accepted 19th July 2019.

  101. Reece A.S. “Unrolling and Unravelling Far-Reaching Implications of Cannabis Use in Pregnancy Study.”  Comment in JAMA Network Online Accepted 31st July 2019.  See Comments Tab.

  102. Reece A.S., Hulse G.K., “Cannabis Consumption Patterns Parallel the East-West Gradient in Canadian Neural Tube Defect Incidence: An Ecological Study”  Accepted for Global Pediatric Health 20th October 2019.   Volume 6 (1): 1-12.

  103. Reece A.S., Hulse G.K. “Canadian Cannabis Consumption and Patterns of Congenital Anomalies: An Ecological Geospatial Analysis” .  Accepted in Journal of Addiction Medicine, 6th January 2020.  MS No. JAM-D-00715R3. ePublished 13th March 2020.

  104. Reece A.S., Hulse G.K.  “Response to Lane”.  Rapid Response to Ian A Lane.  “Re: Cannabis exposure as an interactive cardiovascular risk factor and accelerant of organismal ageing: A longitudinal study”  BMJ Open.  ePublished 27th March 2020.

  105. Reece A.S., Hulse G.K.  America Addresses Two Epidemics Dataset – Cannabis and Coronavirus and their Interactions: Combined Geospatial and Causal Inference Study Dataset held on Mendeley data repository.  May 2020.

  106. Reece A.S., Hulse G.K.   “Cannabis in Pregnancy – Rejoinder, Exposition and Cautionary Tales.”  Accepted for Publication in Psychiatric Times, 18/07/2020.  ePublished 10/10/2020.

  107. Reece A.S., Hulse G.K.  “Broad Spectrum Epidemiological Contribution of Cannabis and Other Substances to the Teratological Profile of Northern New South Wales: Geospatial and Causal Inference Analysis”  Published in BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 13/11//2020.  (2020) 21:75

  108. Reece A.S., Hulse G.K.  “Response to Polocaro and Vettraino”  Accepted in Missouri Medicine 04/10/2020.

  109. Reece A.S., Hulse G.K.  “Co-Occurrence Across Time and Space of Drug- and Cannabinoid- Exposure and Adverse Mental Health Outcomes in the National Survey of Drug Use and Health:  Combined Geotemporospatial and Causal Inference Analysis”  Accepted in BMC Public Health 22nd October 2020.  Published 04/11/2020.  20:1655 .

  110. Reece A.S., Hulse G.K.  “Contemporary epidemiology of rising atrial septal defect trends across USA 1991–2016: a combined ecological geospatiotemporal and causal inferential study.”  BMC Pediatrics 2020; 20:539-550.

  111. Reece A.S., Hulse G.K.  “A geospatiotemporal and causal inference epidemiological exploration of substance and cannabinoid exposure as drivers of rising US pediatric cancer rates.”  BMC Cancer. 2021; 21: (1) 197- 230. .

  112. Reece A.S., Hulse G.K.  “Causal Inference Multiple Imputation Investigation of the Impact of Cannabinoids and Other Substances on Ethnic Differentials in US Testicular Cancer Incidence”  Accepted BMC Public Health 13th April 2021.

  113. Reece A.S., Hulse G.K. “Epidemiological Overview of Multidimensional Chromosomal and Genome Toxicity of Cannabis Exposure in Congenital Anomalies and Cancer Development.”  Accepted in Scientific Reports June 13th 2021.

  114. Reece A.S., Hulse G.K. “Quadruple Convergence – Rising Cannabis Prevalence, Intensity, Concentration and Use Disorder Treatment”.  Lancet Regional Health Europe October 22nd 2021.  100245. 

  115. Reece A.S.  “Neurological, Epigenomic and Multigenerational Adverse Outcomes of Prenatal Cannabis Exposure”.  Comment on “Association of Comorbid Behavioral and Medical Conditions With Cannabis Use Disorder in Pregnancy”  by Meinhofr A., Hinde J.M., Keyes K.M.  JAMA Psychiatry.  Published October 5th 2021.

  116. Reece A.S., Hulse G.K. “Geotemporospatial and Causal Inference Epidemiological Analysis of US Survey and Overview of Cannabis, Cannabidiol and Cannabinoid Genotoxicity in Relation to Congenital Anomalies 2001–2015.”  Accepted in BMC Pediatrics 3rd November 2021.  Published January 19th 2022.  URL:

  117. Reece A.S., Hulse G.K. “Cannabinoid- and Substance- Relationships of European Congenital Anomaly Patterns: A Space-Time Panel Regression and Causal Inferential Study”.  Published 5th February 2022.

  118. Reece A.S., Hulse G.K. “Epidemiological Association of Cannabinoid- and Drug- Exposures and Sociodemographic Factors with Limb Reduction Defects Across USA 1989-2016: A Geotemporospatial Study.”  Published Spatial and Spatiotemporal Epidemiology February 1st 2022.  

  119. Reece A.S.  “Rapid Response: Cannabinoid Genotoxic Trifecta - Cancerogenesis, Clinical Teratogenesis and Cellular Ageing”  Rapid Response to Why doctors have a moral imperative to prescribe and support medical cannabis—an essay by David Nutt.  British Medical Journal.  Published 30th January 2022.  URL:

  120. Reece A.S., Hulse G.K.  “Geotemporospatial and Causal Inferential Epidemiological Overview and Survey of USA Cannabis, Cannabidiol and Cannabinoid Genotoxicity Expressed in Cancer Incidence 2003–2017: Part 1 – Continuous Bivariate Analysis”.  Archives of Public Health, Published 1st April 2022.  Volume 80 Pages 99-128.  URL:  .  doi: .

  121. Reece A.S., Hulse G.K.  “Geotemporospatial and Causal Inferential Epidemiological Overview and Survey of USA Cannabis, Cannabidiol and Cannabinoid Genotoxicity Expressed in Cancer Incidence 2003–2017: Part 2 – Categorical Bivariate Analysis and Attributable Fractions.”  Published 1st April 2022.  Archives of Public Health, Volume 80: 100-135.  doi:  URL: .

  122. Reece A.S., Hulse G.K.  “Geotemporospatial and Causal Inferential Epidemiological Overview and Survey of USA Cannabis, Cannabidiol and Cannabinoid Genotoxicity Expressed in Cancer Incidence 2003–2017: Part 3 – Spatiotemporal, Multivariable and Causal Inferential Pathfinding and Exploratory Analyses of Prostate and Ovarian Cancers.”  Published 1st April 2022  Archives of Public Health, 80:101-131.  URL:

  123. Reece A.S.  “Limblessness: Cannabinoids Inhibit Key Embryonic Morphogens both Directly and Epigenomically”  Rapid Response to Why doctors have a moral imperative to prescribe and support medical cannabis—an essay by David Nutt.  British Medical Journal.  Published 31th January 2022.  URL:

  124. Reece A.S. “Recent Epigenomic Insights into Mechanisms of Severe Cannabinoid Genotoxicity”.  British Medical Journal.  Rapid Response to Why doctors have a moral imperative to prescribe and support medical cannabis—an essay by David Nutt.  Published 7th February 2022.  URL:

  125. Reece A.S.  “Epigenomic and Other Mechanisms Underlying Cannabis Neurotoxicity”.  British Medical Journal.  Rapid Response to Why doctors have a moral imperative to prescribe and support medical cannabis—an essay by David Nutt.  Published 7th February 2022.  URL:

  126. Reece A.S., Hulse G.K.  “Geospatiotemporal and Causal Inference Study of Cannabis and Other Drugs as Risk Factors for  Female Breast Cancer USA 2003-2017.”   Environmental Epigenetics Published 07.04.2022.  Vol. 1 pp1-22.

  127. Reece A.S., Hulse G.K.  “Chapter 7: Cannabinoid Genotoxicity and Congenital Anomalies: A Convergent Synthesis of European and USA Datasets”, In: Martin, Patel, & Preedy – “Cannabis Use, Neurobiology, Psychology, and Treatment”  Accepted 12th March 2022. 

  128. Reece A.S., Hulse G.K.  “Chapter 8: Cannabis Genotoxicity and Cancer Incidence: A Highly Concordant Synthesis of European and USA Datasets” In Martin, Patel, & Preedy – “Cannabis Use, Neurobiology, Psychology, and Treatment”  Accepted 12th March 2022. 


International Media Events & Press

  1. Two hour interview for “We the People” Radio in Redding California Monday 13/12/2021.

  2. Two hour interview for “High Times” with Dr Roneet Lev, White House Drug Policy Adviser, 19.02.2022.

  3. 27/11/2018.  For Daily Mail on subject of Cannabis teratogenicity and its parallels to thalidomide teratogenesis.

Books Written

  1. A.S. Reece  "Let My People Go: A Theology of Addiction"  Westbow Press, December 2016.


Advice given to Government

1998:  Letter to Premier Beattie in Relation to naltrexone Services for Opiate Addiction.

1999:  Advice to Queensland Government on Opiate Detoxicifation Protocols.


2010:  Advice to Community Affairs Committee of Queensland Government on Cannabis Toxicity.


2011:  23rd August, Advice to House of Representatives Community Affairs Committee on Pro-Aging Effects of Drug Addiction.


2011:  Advice to Senate Community Affairs Committee on Medicare Auditing Procedures and Professional Services Review Protocols 26th August. Submission for Australian Doctors Union.

2012:  May 2012, Advice to Dr Bill Coote Director of Professional Services Review in relation to more equitable methods of conduct of formal Review of Medicare Billable Services.

2012:  Advice to Premier Campbell Newman, Brisbane, Queensland,  in Relation to Prospective Clinical Trial Comparing Methadone, Buprenorphine,   Naltrexone Implants,    5th October  2012 and continuing.

2012:  Advice to Premier Barry O’Farrell, Premier of NSW in relation to setting up naltrexone implant clinic.  18th October 2012.

2013:  10.09.2013, Speech for Christian Democratic Party on Medical Cannabis in NSW, based on Review of Parliamentary Report General Standing Committee No. 4.

2013:  21.09.2013, Speech for Christian Democratic Party on Proposed Naltrexone Trial in Sydney, based on Parliamentary Report, General Standing Committee No. 2.

2014:  01.03.2014 Speech for Christian Democratic Party on Government Response to General Purpose Standing Committee No. 2 of Legislative Council of New South Wales on Proposed Improvements to Addiction Me dicine Treatment Facilities in New South Wales, including Naltrexone Implant Trial.

2014:  Speech for Christian Democratic Party on  the Director of the National Institute of Drug Abuse Nora Volkow’s Paper entitled “Adverse Effects of Cannabis” published in the New England Journal of Medicine 370 (23) 2219-2227, 5 June 2014.

2014:  Rebuttal for White Paper Entitled “Some Frequently Asked Q’s and A’s about Medicinal Cannabis” by Mather L and Wodak A. circulated to the NSW Parliament and dated 18th June 2014.  Prepared 13th July 2014.

2014:  Advice to Senator Chris Back, WA, on management of Australian Opiate Dependence.

2014:  Assistance to Marie Ficcarra MLA, NSW parliament related to management of NSW drug policy.

2014:  Advice to John Alexander on management Australian addiction problems 25/09/2014.

2016:  Advice given to Hon. Minister Sussan Ley, Federal Health Minister, Canberra on management of Australia's national drug addiction policies in relation to alcohol, amphetamines "ice" and heroin and opioids, 01/09/2016.

2016:  Advice given to Hon. Prime Minister Malcolm Turnbull via Bert van Manen, Member for Logan, Canberra on management of Australia's national drug addiction policies in relation to alcohol, amphetamines "ice" and heroin and opioids, 17/10/2016.

2016:  Advice given to Greg Parry from the Medical Cannabis Team of Queensland Health 24/10/2016 in relation to medical cannabis.

2016:  Advice given to Kay Hull, Chairperson Australian National Advisory Committee on Alcohol and Drugs in relation to development of naltrexone Implants, 25/10/2016.

2017:  12/02/2017 Advice Given to Bert Van Manen MHR and Federal Minster Greg Hunt Senator in Relation to improvement of management practices for Opioid and Amphetamine dependence in Australia using naltrexone implants.

2017:  23/05/2017 Advice Given to Senator Eric Abetz and Health Minister Greg Hunt in Relation to improvement of processes and procedures for management of Medicare and Professional Services Review.

2017:  August 2017 Advice to Canadian Government on Cannabis Dosing under legalization Paradigm.

2018:  January 2018 Further advice to Canadian Senate on Cannabis dosing under legalization framework.

2018:  March Advice to Senate of Idaho in relation to Cannabis legalization.

2018:  March Advice to Dr David Forbes, Chief Medical Officer Western Australia and Paediatrician relating to cannabis teratogenesis particularly in the South Western corner of Western Australia in the forests.

2018:  April 2018 Advice to USA FDA in relation to risks of cannabis.

2018:  April 2018 advice to WHO via FDA in USA.

2018:  1/05/2018 meeting with Tim Donovan RBWH and Prof Paul Colditz, President Division of Paediatricians within Royal Australasian College of Physicians on cannabis teratogenesis.

2018:  April Advice to John Coleman (President) and David Evans Chief legal adviser of Drug Watch International relating to cannabis teratogenesis and public health harms posed by rapidly accelerating legalization movement.

2018:  23/05/2018 Advice to Northern Territory Government about Proposed legalization of all drugs in Northern Territory.

2018:  24/05/2018 Advice to Legal and constitutional Committee of the Senate of the Parliament of Australia in relation to the proposed re-scheduling of cannabis to make it more widely available.